Visible light photonic integrated Brillouin laser
This recent work was published in Nature Communications.
Photonic integration of high spectral-purity visible light sources will enable experiments to increase in complexity and scale. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a promising approach to realize highly coherent on-chip visible light laser emission. While progress has been made on integrated SBS lasers at telecommunications wavelengths, barriers have existed to translate this performance to the visible, namely the realization of Brillouin-active waveguides in ultra-low optical loss photonics. We have overcome this barrier, demonstrating the first visible light photonic integrated SBS laser, which operates at 674 nm to address the 88Sr+ optical clock transition. To guide the laser design, we use a combination of multi-physics simulation and Brillouin spectroscopy in a 2 meter spiral waveguide to identify the 25.110 GHz first order Stokes frequency shift and 290 MHz gain bandwidth. The laser is implemented in an 8.9 mm radius silicon nitride all-waveguide resonator with 1.09 dB per meter loss and Q of 55.4 Million. Lasing is demonstrated, with an on-chip 14.7 mW threshold, a 45% slope efficiency, and linewidth narrowing as the pump is increased from below threshold to 269 Hz. To illustrate the wavelength flexibility of this design, we also demonstrate lasing at 698 nm, the wavelength for the optical clock transition in neutral strontium. This demonstration of a waveguide-based, photonic integrated SBS laser that operates in the visible, and the reduced size and sensitivity to environmental disturbances, shows promise for diverse AMO applications.